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BULLYING: ACOSO EN EL AULA • View topic - Condicionamiento clásico y C. operante en el aula

Condicionamiento clásico y C. operante en el aula

Condicionamiento clásico y C. operante en el aula

Postby javieryuste » 20 Apr 2011, 18:00

Marce (Mar.23.2009) en el artículo “El aprendizaje social”
Hola
He leído lo que ha publicado, lo que me ha servido bastante para entender los distintos tipos de aprendizaje, pero aún no me queda muy claro el condicionamiento clásico en el aula y sí el operante
Gracias y saludos


Marce, ninguna teoría por sí sola, es capaz de explicar la complejidad de los aprendizajes. Y para el aprendizaje que se produce en el aula, el conductismo de Watson, Pávlov, Bekhterev, Tolman, Skinner…, no es precisamente la mejor. El condicionamiento clásico concibe el aprendizaje como un cambio de conductas producto a su vez de la experiencia, que implica siempre una asociación entre un estímulo y la respuesta hacia este. Así el individuo desarrolla comportamientos en función de las consecuencias recibidas anteriormente. Imagina un país en donde no estuviese prohibido al profesor el uso de los castigos físicos para imponer disciplina en el aula. El profesor terminó su explicación y pone tarea a los alumnos. Pero uno de los niños no realiza el trabajo encomendado y se dedica a hablar y a “molestar” a sus compañeros, y su profesor le llama la atención dos o tres veces, y como no calla, le llama a su mesa y allí le pide que coloque la palma de la mano cara arriba y le da un palmetazo. Ante el “estímulo” de un profesor “callado”, el alumno produce una “respuesta” de hablar y esa respuesta produce otro estímulo incondicionado (llamadas de atención del profesor), a lo que el niño responde con una respuesta incondicionada (sigue hablando) y ello tiene unas consecuencias muy negativas para él (palmetazo en la mano). Las próximas veces que el niño hable (en vez de trabajar), y el profesor (sin previamente llamarle siquiera de forma verbal la atención) le muestre la palmeta agitándola en el aire (estímulo condicionado), el niño rápidamente se callará (respuesta condicionada). Un aprendizaje similar podría producirse desde una perspectiva positiva.
Espero haber aclarado un poco mejor tus dudas.
Un cordial saludo.
javieryuste
 
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